11 to 18 July 1999
American Museum of Natural History
Peter Amati, Holliston High School, Holliston, Massachusetts
Fred Atwood, Flint Hill School, Oakton, Virginia
Elke Bergholz, United Nations International School, New York, New York
Kristen Bjork, EDC, Newton, Massachusetts
Sue Bowman, Lebanon High School, Lebanon, Pennsylvania
Arlene Cain, Sam Houston High School, Lake Charles, Louisiana
Timothy Conner, Chenango Forks Central School, Binghamton, New York
Tom Cuddy, AMNH, New York, New York
Besse Dawson, Pearland High School, Pearland, Texas
Nancy Hechinger, AMNH, New York, New York
Willow Johnson, AMNH, New York, New York
Rebecca Katz, AMNH, New York, New York
Sandra Kolb, Poulsbo, Washington
Maritza MacDonald, AMNH, New York, New York
Debra Meese, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire
Pat McGlashan, Stony Creek, Connecticut
Caroline Nobel, AMNH, New York, New York
Ellen Przybyla, AMNH, New York, New York
Larry Rose, , Pleasanton Middle School, Pleasanton, California
Stephanie Shipp, AMNH, New York, New York
Barbara Schulz, Lakeside School, Seattle, Washington
Steve Stevenoski, Lincoln High School, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin
Wayne Sukow, NSF, Arlington, Virginia
Rolf Tremblay, Goodman Middle School, Gig Harbor, Washington
Hillary Tulley, Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois
Linda Wygoda, Sam Houston High School, Lake Charles, Louisiana
Objectives of the TEA Activities Workshop:
Create on-line activities that translate the personal and research experience into the classroom such that students undertake classroom investigations that reflect the process of the field investigation.
TEA is a research and professional development experience. Parcticipants travel to remote polar places and experience the excitement and monotony of science first hand, in depth. The classroom activities created by TEAs help to share these personal and research experiences with other teachers and students.
What Paths Do We Take to Meet the Objectives:
The first day began with a welcome by Nancy Hechinger, Director of the National Center for Science Literacy, Education, and Technology at the American Museum. Nancy emphasized the strong connections between the Museum and educators; both are working to share the love and excitement of science with the public. A collaboration, through research experiences like TEA, in which the Museum serves as a "homebase" and living resource, appears to be a desirable and natural relationship.
Attributes of TEA Activities
A brief discussion revisited "what makes a TEA activity a TEA activity and not something else?" What are the attributes of a TEA activity?
From the 1998 TEA Workshop: "…..TEA activities are hands-on and inquiry-based. They infuse the personal and research experience into the classroom. They reflect accurate and current science, and effectively integrate other disciplines where possible. They help teachers become comfortable with facilitating research in the classroom. These are activities to remember; they mirror the wonder, awe, and joy of exploration….."
There is strong similarity between the list of activity attributes discussed by the 1998 and those detailed by the 1999 workshop parcticipants (which is comforting!). As described by the 1999 parcticipants, TEA activities:
(background is important)
TEA Author Prompts Template
An even briefer discussion touched on the author prompts for the TEA template. In general, there was consensus for leaving the template in its original form, provided there was some flexibility in its interpretation and use. The template headers serve as reminders to needed components and the use of the template provides consistency in presentation and a comfort level through familiarity for audience use. The template usefulness and components were revisited at the close of the workshop (see evaluation section).
The remainder of the day, and the first half of the second day focused on presentations and discussion of proposed activities by the workshop parcticipants. Key questions focused on:
Reflection on Inquiry
Maritza MacDonald led a discussion that focused on the process of investigation. How do you get students to ask meaningful questions?
What questions did TEA parcticipants have when they went into the field? What questions emerged through time as you conducted your research? What are their re-framed questions now?
This is the process we hope students experience: questioning, seeking evidence, refining questions. How will we create/support this learning environment?
When creating activities, we should think of four arenas:
Think in terms of four components - and these four components are common to the research experience:
Comments by Curriculum Specialists
Kristen's and Pat's ideas were fairly parallel.
In this activity students will investigate the migration of road salt (from road's edge into a distance of six meters) following its application during a snow storm and the subsequent plowing of the roads.
Where Have All the Road Salts Gone, Long Time Migrating
In this activity students will investigate what happens to salt water when it freezes. Observations of densities and salt concentration (by measuring conductivity) will be made. These results will be compared with the densities and conductivity conditions found in sea ice cores (columns of frozen sea water taken from the ocean around Antarctica).
The Effect of Cold on Characteristics Important to Fishes
In this activity students work in groups to design experiments to test the effects of cold on rate of diffusion, enzyme activity, nerve activity, dissolved oxygen, blood flow characteristics and lipid characteristics. After each group's plan is approved by the teacher, the group performs their experiment and reports their results to the rest of the class for class discussion.
Fish Anatomy: A Comparison between Temperate and Antarctic Fishes
In this activity students will dissect a fish purchased from a fish market to study its external and internal anatomy. They will observe its gills, kidney?, and blood in the microscope and will take a variety of measurements about many of the internal organs. They will practice their observation skills by making accurate illustrations. Then these data and drawings will be compared with some Antarctic fishes from the family Notothenidae in order to direct a discussion on morphological adaptations for survival in polar seas.
Adaptations of Fishes for Survival in Polar Environments
In this set of activities students compare the anatomy of temperate and polar fishes and discuss reasons for the differences. They learn about the adverse effects of cold on metabolism and physiology and discuss how polar fishes are adapted to circumvent these effects. They learn about the effects of salt and antifreeze on the freezing point of water and they apply this knowledge to polar fish adaptations enabling them to survive at -1.9 C. They compare the DNA sequences of unrelated Arctic and Antarctic fish, look at their phylogenetic tree, and discuss convergent evolution. They learn about the specialized chloride cells in the gills of fish that enable them to control the salt concentrations of their body fluids so they don't freeze and they brainstorm ways to study the effect of temperature on these chloride cells. Then they discuss actual data from experiments performed in Antarctica and try to draw conclusions from the data and propose additional questions for investigation.
South Pole, Antarctica, Ozone and Temperature Data Analysis
Students will analyze and plot ozone and temperature data collected at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during January and February, 1999 , October 1998, October 1967, make annual and seasonal comparison of ozone data, become familiar with the distribution and correlation of ozone and temperature in the atmosphere from 0 to 35 kilometers, and study the chemistry of the ozone layer and its depletion, and became familiar with the nature of the ozone hole over Antarctica.
Temperature change with depth in an ice sheet. Ice sheet movement. (In Progress)
Determining the Wavelength of Light - A light sensor will allow the student to collect light intensity measurements as the distance of the light source varies. The students will investigate the relationship between light intensity and distance and make conclusions about this relationship.
Investigating Spectrophotometric Relationships
This activity will introduce students to the concepts of intensity, absorbance, and transmittance of electromagnetic radiation in the visible region. A study of the visible region directly relates to other sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. The students will use a light sensor, pen light, sunglass lenses or colored filters, graphing calculator and CBL.
Determining the Wavelength of Light
This activity will introduce students to the electromagnetic spectrum through examination of the visible regions of the spectrum which directly relates to other sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. The students will use a diffraction grating, a straight filament light source, and meter sticks to calculate the wavelength of different colors of the visible spectrum.
Who Lived Here? (place-holder title)
In this on-line activity students examine data collected at a dig in the Arctic to decipher the history of cultural occupation. Taking into account artifacts, archaeological structures, and geological information, students reconstruct the lives and environments of those who occupied the site.
What's in a Name?
These two activities introduce students to scientific taxonomy and using, as well as creating, dichotomous keys. The first activity models the dichotomous key by having the students determine the identity of polar species of the Order Pinnipedia. The second activity brings a bit of the background in how scientific naming is done and leads the students into creating penguin Families based on physical characteristics. The students create the Family names using provided Latin and Greek root words as "building blocks" toward names that describe the family members.
This activity is designed to help students experience the creativity, anticipation, and peer review of obtaining a grant for scientific research at the poles by guiding them through the process in a step-by-step manner.
Students investigate nutritional requirements for intense physical exercise under extremely cold conditions. They plan a nutritionally correct menu for their body weight and nutritional requirements as if planning for their own expedition.
In this activity students will use the Internet to investigate and compare/contrast body weights at the S. Pole to different regions around the world (N. Pole, Equator, Seattle, etc.).
Today's Forecast: Graphing Temperature Data (Revision)
In this activity students use Internet skills to find local and Antarctic weather data. They record the data, assemble it in a logical order, graph it, and interpret the graphed information.
Why Amundsen Killed His Dogs; A lesson from the Heroic Age
Students use Internet, video and text resources to gather information about the Amundsen/Scott "race" for the South Pole in 1911-12, dog sledding, and the ethical treatment of animals for science. Using this information the students set up a debate (:: Resolved: It was right and expedient for Roald Amundsen to use and kill sled dogs to reach his goal.) to determine the efficacy, rightness, wrongness, morality if you will, of the decisions made by Amundsen- to kill his dogs progressively in a pre-determined fashion to provide food and an anti-scorbutic agent for his men and the remaining dogs- and the decisions made by R.F. Scott- to use motorized sledges, Siberian ponies and finally man-hauling for his tragic journey to the Pole.
The Sheer Beauty of the Place
Using the TEA diaries from the Glacier Web site, photos and other resources from the web, video and textual sources, students will prepare a poster, a web page, a Powerpoint presentation, or other visual presentation called the "Sheer Beauty of the Place". This is an exercise in esthetics of the pristine wildness and beauty of the polar regions supported by quotations from the TEA daily journals and other resources. It is also supported by student writing especially poetry. Subjects include expression through art and language arts of the role of the scientist, the Glacier Web site fully explored with all Antarctica facts and ideas at the student's disposal.
Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Net Primary Productivity
Students will determine the net primary productivity of their stream, pond, or lake using a protocol similar to the required lab activity required in the Advanced Placement Biology curriculum. Students can calculate the amount of carbon captured by photosynthesis by looking at the oxygen production. Students can measure the oxygen consumed by metabolism in a 24-hour period. Students will be able to compare their data to data from the McMurdo Dry Valley LTER data and the data offered in the schoolyard LTER partnership with Lakeside School in Seattle WA and the Tuscaloosa Academy in Tuscaloosa Al. Students can ask questions of their data compared with that from the most pristine ecosystem on the planet that is also in the most extreme environment. on the planet
Seeing the Seafloor Using Sound: Multibeam Sidescan Sonar
Students will use a motion detector to learn about the how sound waves can be used to "image" objects. They will use the motion probe connected to a computer-type interface to collect reflected sound data in real time to produce a graphical representation of their experimental seafloor. This method serves as a model for how "waves" can be used for non-intrusive imaging of objects. Examples - ultrasound, seismic mapping of the earth, radar imaging, NMR.
Connecting to the Poles through TEA E-Mail
In this activity, students examine on-line journals to become familiar with polar research. Based on their readings, students pose questions, research possible answers, and communicate via e-mail with Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic parcticipants at the research locations.
The Shape of the Ice: Using Maps to Learn About Antarctic Topography
Students explore maps to become familiar with features of Antarctica. They are introduced to a topographic map which is used to construct a three-dimensional model of the continent. Students employ these models to investigate the nature of Antarctic ice.
The Dating Game: Radioactive Half-Life and Dating Techniques
In this fun (and edible!) lab using M&M's, students will explore the concepts of radioactive decay and dating. Students generate a radioactive decay table (designed to simplify the math), use their data to plot a decay graph, develop the concept of half-life, and then use the graph to find the age of a mummified seal in Wright Valley Antarctica. In a follow-up exercise, students will solve a mysterious Arctic murder.
Measuring Albedo: Using a light probe to determine the percent of the Earth's total incoming solar energy
Albedo is the fraction of incoming sunlight that is reflected, rather than absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Sunlight might be reflected by the surface of the Earth or by clouds. To determine albedo in this activity students will use a light probe that is interfaced to a TI-8* calculator and CBL system. The light probe will be used to measure the incoming radiation from the sun and the reflected radiation from the Earth's surface. Albedo is calculated by dividing the reflected radiation by the incoming radiation and then converting this value to a percent. Students will then consider factors that might affect albedo and design and implement experiments that study these factors. Students will also consider what impact the polar ice sheets have on the radiation budget and research information from the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) from the internet.
Shoe Box House Design For Different Climates: Using The CBL Probeware System
In this investigation, students will design, build and test a shoebox house for a parcticular climate system. Students will design their houses based on the physical properties of their materials, the characteristics of their climate system, and with the engineering principle of passive design. Students will test their building materials using the light probe and temperature probes to determine their reflectance and insulating qualities. Students will use the library and the internet to research the climate characteristics for their houses. Finally, students will develop methods of testing their houses, with the goal of developing a house that through a passive design maintains a stable indoor temperature that also meets the needs of the occupants. Students will model the energy budget (energy gains and losses) of their structure using mathematics and diagrams.
Calculating The Solar Constant Using A TI-8* Calculator/Probeware System
The major determiner of climate is solar radiation. The amount of solar energy that strikes the Earth is a measurable value that is important in the study of food chains and the radiation budget of climates. The solar input is the amount of power a given cross-sectional area receives from the sun when the sun is directly over that area. To determine the solar input or constant, the amount of heat absorbed by a known mass of water exposed to a known cross-sectional area of sunlight is calculated in this experiment using a graphing calculator/CBL system and temperature probe.
The amount of light that is absorbed by a colored transparent solution can be used to determine it's concentration. A colorimeter is a device that can measure the amount of absorbance by a solution. Beer's law states that there is a direct relationship between the absorbance and concentration of a solution. We will use the colorimeter to measure the absorbance of known concentrations of a green colored solution and obtain a graph. We will then determine the unknown concentration of the same solution. This activity will introduce students to the use of a colorimeter to establish the relationship between the concentration of a solution and the absorbance of light energy at a parcticular wavelength.
Wind Chill!!! (Revision)
In this activity students use a variety of windchill charts to determine how cold the temperature "feels" versus how cold it really is. Students experiment with cooling due to evaporation versus cooling due to evaporation enhanced by wind. Students tie their knowledge of wind chill to understanding the impact of cold and wind in the polar environment and prevention of dangerous conditions
Overhead Spectroscopy (Revision)
In this demonstration activity, an overhead projector, diffraction grating and a series of filters are used to introduce the basic concepts of the visible electromagnetic spectrum and the relationship between wavelength and absorption of light. The overhead projector is used to project the spectrum from the diffraction grating on the board or wall. A series of colored filters are used to filter the light passing through the diffraction grating. The affects of the filter on the displayed spectra bands can be observed.
What did you want to get out of the workshop?
Views on the Template:
to all for parcticipating and for working and working and working and working!!!!!
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